Cartography - Calendar of Meetings and Events


New members and visitors are always welcome to attend these events.
Please submit your meeting notices to John W. Docktor <phillymaps(at)gmail(dot)com>
To learn more about non-current maps see Map History / History of Cartography.
Exhibition announcements can be found at Cartography - Calendar of Exhibitions.
Click here for archive of past events.


2024

April 25, May 23, 30, 2024 - Sint-Niklaas, Belgium The Museum SteM Sint-Niklaas is organising a series of lectures on cartography in MercatorMuseum - Zamanstraat 49. Below is the list of forthcoming events, with a link to the pages containing a description of each lecture and the opportunity to register: Each lecture starts at 20:00 and is in Dutch:
April 25: Ik = cartograaf [I = cartographer]
May 23: Oude kaarten lezen [Reading old maps]
May 30: Kaarten die grenzen verleggen [Maps that push boundaries]



April 26, 2024- Boulder, Colorado Please join the Rocky Mountain Map Society at 11:00 am for a field trip to the CU Boulder Map Library. There will be a group tour of the current exhibition "No Boundaries: Women Transforming the World", with time to explore the library, and lunch on campus to follow. If you haven't visited the CU Map Library, here's your chance to learn about holdings and research services available to all!



April 27, 2024 - Chapel Hill The William P. Cumming Map Society will meet 10a - 12n at Wilson Library on the UNC-Chapel Hill campus. Margaret Pritchard will discuss More than Meets the Eye: Symbolic Messages Conveyed Through Maps. Margaret’s presentation dovetails with "Compasses, Cartouches, and Creatures: Exploring the Art of North Carolina Maps", the current map exhibit in the North Carolina Gallery in the Wilson Library.



May 1-2, 2024 - Sydney On May 1 the Australian and New Zealand Map Society will have a one-day “ANZMaps 2024” symposium, Mapping the Indian Ocean World, from antiquity to the present, held at the State Library of New South Wales. The symposium explores the cartography of the Indian Ocean World reflecting its role in shaping human knowledge, culture and history from antiquity to present. Click here for booking.
   On May 2 there will be a public lecture and workshop organised by the University of Western Australia. The will be limited tickets for the workshop: Looking slowly at early modern maps with Chet van Duzer. Book now. Tickets for the evening lecture, Frames that Speak: An introduction to cartographic cartouches with Chet van Duzer, can be obtained by clicking here.



May 2, 2024 – Washington (Hybrid) The Washington Map Society will meet in person at the Library of Congress, arranged in collaboration with the Library of Congress Development Office and the Philip Lee Phillips Society. The Library will also broadcast the two presentations virtually. The lectures will be held in the Montpelier Room on the 6th Floor of the Madison Building. The program schedule is as follows:
    Lecture 1, 3:00-4:00 pm, Lauren Beck (Canada Research Chair in Intercultural Encounter; Professor of Visual and Material Culture Studies, Mount Allison University, Canada) will speak about
Extractive Place Naming Practices in Early Modern North America
    
Map Display, 4:00 -5:00 pm, Room adjacent to Montpelier Room
    Lecture 2, 5:00 -6:00 pm, S. Max Edelson (Professor of History, University of Virginia) will speak about
Catawba Cartographies: Remapping the Indigenous Southeast, ca. 1670-1733
Click here to register for in person or virtual attendance at the Library of Congress events.
    Following the Library of Congress events, the Washington Map Society has arranged for an informal dinner at the nearby Hunan Dynasty Restaurant (215 Pennsylvania Ave. SE), starting at 6:30 pm. The cost will be $40.00 cash (including tax and tip). Dinner reservation must be made by April 24.
RSVP to John Docktor at <washmap(at)gmail.com> in order to receive link for making a dinner reservation.



May 2, 2024 - Williamsburg The Williamsburg Map Circle announces our next presentation by Eliane Dotson. Her lecture will explore Jefferson's early education and experiences in surveying and explain how he came to create his influential map, A Map of the Country Between Albemarle Sound, and Lake Erie. We will review the cartographic and historical significance of this map and examine how it served as an important record of the growth of the nation in the late 18th Century. We hope you will all be able to join us at 5:00p.m. at Williamsburg Landing, Assisted Living Building. Please let Ellen Spore <ellen.spore(at)gmail.com> know if you will be able to attend.



May 3-4, 2024 - Austin The Texas Map Society is pleased to host the “2024 Spring Meeting”, All Over the Map, at the Texas General Land Office, 1700 Congress Ave. This event will feature tours of the Ransom Center, the Briscoe Center, the Benson Latin American Collection, and the Texas General Land Office, as well as pioneer land surveying demonstrations and presentations on an assortment of cartographic topics. Click here for program. Click here to register for meeting. Discounted hotel rates are available if booking is made by April 4. For questions one can email TMS President and conference organizer James Harkins <James.Harkins(at)glo.texas.gov>.



May 3, 2024 – Edinburgh (Hybrid) The Scottish Maps Forum will be having a one-day seminar: The Premodern Scottish Place: Mapping, Chorography, History, Landscape, Literature. This seminar will bring together researchers working on the premodern (medieval and early modern) histories of Scottish cartography, chorography, landscape, history, and literature. The seminar forms part of a wider research project relating to Place and Poetry in Pre-Modern Scotland. A related part of this project involves the creation of a new online resource, mapping a small selection of early modern poems relating to Scotland. We will unveil these on the day, inviting comment and review to help to finalise them by the summer. The seminar will involve a series of short talks, with plenty of time for discussion. There will also be an opportunity to view a small selection of relevant collection items in the Maps Reading Room. The seminar will be held in the National Library of Scotland Causewayside Building, Edinburgh, and also online. There will be no charge for the seminar, but you will need to register to attend. Spaces are limited for attendance in person. Further details of speakers, talks and a timetable for the day is posted online.



May 4, 2024 - New York The New York Map Society will have our end-of-program-season event! A Lunch, Show & Tell will be held in a member's home in Manhattan: 12:00 - 1:00: Light lunch, wine and beer; 1:00 - 2:00: Show & Tell. Attendees strictly limited to 15. Presenters limited to eight speaking for no more than five minutes each. RSVP to Andrew Kapochunas <kapochunas(at)gmail.com> as soon as possible to reserve your spot as a presenter or attendee and receive the meeting address.



May 7, 2024 – Cambridge (Online) The Cambridge Seminars in the History of Cartography meets at 5.30pm UK time. Jana Schuster (Historic England & New York University) will speak about The cartographic commissions of John, 2nd Duke of Montagu (1690-1749). All are welcome. All seminars will be on Zoom. Please register for the talk andd the Zoom link will be sent to you. For any enquiries, please contact Sarah Bendall at <sarah.bendall(at)emma.cam.ac.uk>, tel. 01223 330476. The seminars are kindly supported by Emmanuel College Cambridge.



May 7, 14, 21, and 28, 2024 – Denver (Hybrid) The Rocky Mountain Map Society, in conjunction with History Colorado, presents a month-long series of lectures focusing on persuasive maps. All programs will be at History Colorado, 1200 Broadway, and start at 5:30PM MT. Contact Naomi Heiser <naomi.heiser(at)colorado.edu> for Zoom link for each meeting.
  May 7 - PJ Mode. Persuasion” and “Intent” in Persuasive Mapping: “Words Without Thoughts Never to Heaven Go. Please register for in-person attendance and get a free ticket at History Colorado's event calendar.
  
May 14 - Susan Schulten. The Graphic Legacy of Richard Edes Harrison. Please register for in-person attendance and get a free ticket at History Colorado's event calendar.
  
May 21 - Dennis Reinhartz. Popular Promotional Cartography of the Southwest: The Art of Persuasion. Please register for in-person attendance and get a free ticket at History Colorado's event calendar.
  May 28 - Chet Van Duzer. Colonialism in the Cartouche: Imagery and Power in Early Modern Maps. Please register for in-person attendance and get a free ticket at History Colorado's event calendar.



May 8, 2024 - Richmond The Library of Virginia, 800 E. Broad Street, received a gift of 200 maps from the Emerson Knapp Map Collection. The Knapp collection is composed of maps illustrating North America, British North America, Virginia, the United States and the American Southeast through three centuries of cartographic publication. You are invited to join us 5:30 - 7:00 p.m. as we explore the Emerson Knapp Map Collection. RSVP here.



May 9, 2024 - Oxford (Online) The 31st Annual Series Oxford Seminars In Cartography run from 4.30pm to 6.00pm (UK time). Martin Brückner (University of Delaware) will speak about Colonial counter-mappings: Learning from indigenous cartography in eighteenth-century America. Click here to book your place. For further details please contact: Nick Millea <nick.millea(at)bodleian.ox.ac.uk>, Map Librarian, Bodleian Library, Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BG; Tel: 01865 287119. The Oxford Seminars in Cartography are supported by: The Friends of TOSCA / The Bodleian Libraries / The School of Geography and the Environment / The Charles Close Society / Lovell Johns Ltd.



May 10, 2024 - Boston (Online) Join the Leventhal Map & Education Center for a virtual lunch lecture at 12 noon to learn more about George Washington’s relationship to the American West. Dr. Alexandra Montgomery from the Washington Library at Mount Vernon will focus on one of the maps he used most frequently during the American Revolution: Thomas Hutchins’ A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina (1778). This event is part of the American Revolutionary Geographies Online (ARGO) project. Click here to register.



May 11, 2023 – San Francisco The Bay Area Map Group of the California Map Society will have in-person meeting, from 2 to 5pm, at the home of Len and Juliet Rothman. More information about the event, including how to RSVP, can be found here.



May 15, 2024 - New York (Online) Register for "Morning Tea with the British Library", a virtual event hosted by The American Trust for the British Library in partnership with The British Library. Join us for a short, thirty-minute virtual program, 9:00 am - 9:30 am EDT, with British Library Curator Tom Harper. Tom will present The Topographical Collection of King George III at the British Library. He will go in-depth about projects that have been acquired, preserved, or catalogued through ATBL grants. There will be a short Q&A session with the curator at the end of the program. Though we typically restrict these “Tea with the British Library” programs to our registered supporters, we are happy to open it up for "cartographic networks", given the interest in all things “map”! Register here.



May 16, 2024 – Chicago (Hybrid) You are invited to join the Chicago Map Society for an informative program at the Newberry Library; 5:30 p.m. – social time with light refreshments; 6:00 p.m. Wilbert Stroeve (past president Chicago Map Society) will discuss Games on Maps. Remember Risk? It was probably the first time that he ever heard of geographical regions called Yakutsk and Irkutsk. Over the years Stroeve played many board games and now that he is retired has time for more. It was suggested to do a map talk about those games that involve maps.



May 16, 2024 - Stanford Maps are incredibly rich documents that only reveal some of their secrets after slow and deliberate study, and it is precisely this aspect of maps that we will explore in this two-hour workshop: Looking Slowly at Early Modern Maps. Chet Van Duzer will analyze several early modern maps and provide examples of important characteristics of them that can only be appreciated and understood through slow looking. Workshop is 10am to 12pm PT in Green Library, Hohbach Hall, Room 123. Click to register.



May 17, 2024 - Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales (Hybrid) Carto-Cymru 2024, The Wales Map Symposium, will be held at the National Library of Wales. This year the theme is ‘Maps and Mapmakers’ and we are looking at the people who make maps. Click here for more information and to book to attend in person. Click here for more information and to book to attend online. Additional information from Huw Thomas <huw.thomas(at)llyfrgell.cymru>.



May 17-18, 2024 - Stanford Organized by Professor Paula Findlen of Stanford's Department of History, the David Rumsey Map Center will host a workshop about the Milanese cartographer Urbano Monte's 1587 world map. Join historians and scholars from Stanford and beyond as they discuss this compelling artifact from a variety of points of view. Learn more about the event. At the conclusion of the workshop, Stanford Camerata and the University of Southern California's Early Music Ensemble will perform Musical Encounters in the Tenshō Embassy, a concert exploring Western music performed for Japanese envoys in the 1580s. Register now for the workshop, the performance, or both!



May 25, 2024 - Washington The Washington Map Society will have a field trip from 3:00 -6:00 pm, at Congressional Cemetery Chapel, 1801 E Street SE. Patrick Crowley, Capitol Hill resident and former Board of Director Member, Congressional Cemetery will talk about Grave Matters: Act I - Solving Graveyard Mysteries through Old Maps; Act II – Visiting the Cartographers & Explorers Buried at Congressional Cemetery. Meeting will be in two parts: first, a presentation of old maps used by Mr. Crowley to find solutions to mysteries about the grounds and, second, a tour of cartographers and explorers buried at Congressional Cemetery.



June 7, 2024 - Boston (Hybrid) Join the Leventhal Map & Education Center for a virtual lunch lecture at 12 noon to learn more about New York During the Stamp Act and Revolutionary War: The Montrésor Map of 1766/1755. This program is organized in partnership with the Washington Library at Mount Vernon. Dr. Alexandra Montgomery (Washington Library at Mount Vernon) will talk about one of Early America’s most important cities, New York, from one of its most influential early maps: “John Montrésor’s A Plan of the City of New-York”. Washington owned a copy of this map, which was surveyed and drafted during the heady days of the stamp act riots and published at the beginning of the American Revolution. The event is part of the American Revolutionary Geographies Online (ARGO) project. Click here to register.



June 10, 2024 - Warsaw (Online) We are excited to invite you to Warsaw Spatial Humanities seminar. Our speaker is Matthew Endey with a topic Historical Geography and Early Maps: Reflections on Modelling Sources. We meet online at 12:00 Warsaw time (CEST). Register here to join us.



June 11, 2024 - Washington (Online) Join from 3:00-4:00 pm (Eastern) Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, reference librarians for an introduction to the Geography and Map Division collections. This orientation session, aimed at the general public, will highlight a wide range of cartographic formats and subject matter. The focus of the session will be on maps and online resources available to all patrons any time or place in the world. Topics covered will also include search tips and tricks, research and collection guides, ways to engage with the collections online, and how to prepare for a future trip to the reading room. After the presentation, staff look forward to answering additional questions from attendees. Register for this session.



June 13, 2024 - Oxford (Online) The 31st Annual Series Oxford Seminars In Cartography run from 4.30pm to 6.00pm (UK time). Anthony Gerbino (University of Manchester) will discuss How did the chorographic tradition end? Picture maps and measurement in Renaissance France. Click here to book your place. For further details please contact: Nick Millea <nick.millea(at)bodleian.ox.ac.uk>, Map Librarian, Bodleian Library, Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BG; Tel: 01865 287119. The Oxford Seminars in Cartography are supported by: The Friends of TOSCA / The Bodleian Libraries / The School of Geography and the Environment / The Charles Close Society / Lovell Johns Ltd.



June 15, 2024 – London The International Map Collectors' Society annual general meeting will be held at 10am at the Royal Geographical Society, 1 Kensington Gore.



June 15-16, 2024 - London The London Map Fair is the largest Antique Map Fair in Europe. It will be held at the Royal Geographical Society, 1 Kensington Gore: Saturday 12.00 pm to 7.00 pm and Sunday 10.00 am to 6.00 pm.



June 20, 2024 – Washington (Online) Hosted by the Washington Map Society, this Zoom meeting is presented in partnership with the California, Chicago, New York, Philip Lee Phillips, Rocky Mountain, and Texas Map Societies. Anyone interested in participating in the meeting must RSVP to John Docktor at washmap(at)gmail.com in order to receive the meeting ID and passcode. Meeting will start at 7:00 PM Eastern Time, 6:00 PM Central Time, 5:00 PM Mountain Time, and 4:00 PM Pacific Time. Heiko Mühr (Earth Sciences & Map Library, University of California Berkeley) will speak about Mapping German Americans and Their Communities: Heinz Kloss and His 1974 Ethnographic Atlas.



June 29, 2024 – Stanford (Hybrid) The Spring Meeting of the California Map Society will be held, from 10am to 4:30pm, at the David Rumsey Map Center, Green Library, 557 Escondido Mall. Click here for additional details.



July 1-5, 2024 - Lyon, France Imago Mundi and the University of Lyon will be glad to welcome you back to France during the 30th International Conference on the History of Cartography, postponed from 2023. The idea of organizing the conference in Lyon with the theme Confluences - Interdisciplinarity and New Challenges in the History of Cartography is inspired by the very location of the city, as a confluence between North and South, between Saône and Rhône rivers, the Rhône Valley and the Alps. The official language of the conference will be English, and all presentations must be in that language. There will be no simultaneous translation. There will be a pre-conference visit to Paris and Bibliothèque Nationale de France on June 29th, and a post-conference tour on July 6th. Additional information from <ichc2024(at)univ-lyon3.fr>.



July 3, 2024 – Lyon, France The Lyon Map Fair will be held 11.00 to 18.00 at the University of Lyon/MILC - Maison Internationale des Langues et des Cultures, 35 rue Raulin -The 15 national and international map dealers will offer for sale a large selection of old maps, atlases, globes, travel books, and prints.



July 9, 2024 - Boston (Online) Join the Leventhal Map & Education Center for a virtual lecture from 7:00-8:00 pm.: Tracing ‘Yu’: Stone Maps and the Modern Re-Imagination of ‘Chinese’ Territory. On opposite sides of a twelfth-century stele in Xi’an appear two of the most famous maps in Chinese cartographic history, the Tracks of Yu and the Map of Chinese and Foreigners, best known through rubbings now found in collections around the world. This paper, by Stephen H. Whiteman (Reader in the Art and Architecture of China, The Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London), revisits these two maps, reflecting on the almost heroic status they have acquired in modern efforts to imagine the ‘China’ and the Chinese past through its technical accomplishments. Click here to register.



August 27-30, 2024 - London (Hybrid) The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Annual International Conference 2024 will be chaired by Professor Stephen Legg (University of Nottingham, UK). The chair’s theme will explore mapping in all its forms, in a world that is saturated with maps, from historical cartography to the newest technologies and digital practices. The conference venue will be at the Society and at Imperial College London. Additional information from <ac2024(at)rgs.org>.



September 4-7, 2024 – Oldenberg The 21. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium will be held. Additional details to be announced.



September 7, 2024 – Amsterdam The first international Amsterdam Map Fair will be held at the Maritime Museum from 11.00-18.00. There are extras for members of both International Map Collectors' Society (IMCoS) and The Brussels Map Circle. These include a boat trip and a lunch on the day. There is also an optional concert that evening. Our much-esteemed previous IMCoS Chair, Hans Kok, will be giving an address at the Fair in the afternoon.



September 7, 2024 - Amsterdam The Brussels Map Circle is pleased to announce its next excursion to Amsterdam, in conjunction with the Map Fair. The programme will follow.



September 10, 2024 - Boston (Hybrid) Join the Leventhal Map & Education Center, 700 Boylston Street, for a lecture from 7:00-8:00 pm. Learn about the changing land tenure systems of eighteenth-century Canada as seen through maps. The 1774 Quebec Act is primarily known for partially provoking the American Revolution. But it also formalized the continuation of French, and by extension, Indigenous land tenures in British-controlled Quebec. In this program, Julia Lewandoski (Assistant Professor of History, University of California San Diego) will explore how cartographers struggled to express and accommodate distinctive French and Indigenous forms of landholding on maps meant to assert British dominance over the province. Registration is not required, but we will send a calendar invitation and reminder to registered attendees.



September 18-19, 2024 – London (Online) The Map Curators’ Group of the British Cartographic Society will hold its Annual Workshop online on the afternoons. Additional information from Paula Williams <P.Williams(at)NLS.UK>.



October 3-5, 2024 - Kansas City The Road Map Collectors Association will have MapCon 2024 at the Hilton Kansas City Airport Hotel, 8801 NW 112th St.



October 4-5, 2024 – Arlington The theme of the 14th Biennial Virginia Garrett Lectures in the History of Cartography is Celestial Charts. Further details to be announced.



October 8, 2024 - Paris The idea of geography being the “eye of history” is a common expression in the early modern period, but it is articulated in a specific way if we take the cartographic object as the point of observation. The map as the “eye of history” (16th-18th centuries) is a study day which will re-investigate the relationship between maps and history in the chronological span from the 16th to the 18th century, in Europe and its imperial extensions, from three angles: the analysis of the place of maps in the teaching and reading of history, an investigation into history on and through maps, and a reflection on the porosity between the producers of historical and cartographic knowledge. With the support of the Centre Alexandre-Koyré (CAK) and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF), the study day will take place in the conference room of the Maps and Plans Department of the BnF on the Richelieu site. Additional inforamtion from <oeildelhistoire2024(at)gmail.com>.



October 14-15, 2024 - Prague The workshop Ethnolinguistic cartography (18th–21st centuries) in comparative perspective: genre, political conflicts, memory, organised by the Institute of History of the Czech Academy of Sciences with the support of the Strategy AV21: Research programme Identities in the World of Wars and Crises, will take place at the Institute of History. The theme of the workshop will be to analyse the development of ethnolinguistic maps in Europe and other regions of the world from different perspectives from the 18th to the 21st century. Additional information from dr. Stanislav Holubec <sholubec(at)gmail.com> or dr. Jitka Močičková <mocickova(at)hiu.cas.cz>.



October 16-19, 2024 - Valletta, Malta The 41st International Map Collectors' Society annual symposium, Imago Melitae 2024, will feature six lectures by well-known figures in the cartographic world will be given along with visits to the National Library, MUZA and Lascaris War Rooms in Valletta, the Maritime Museum and the Inquisitors Palace in Vittoriosa, and the National and Ecclesiastical Archives in Rabat and Mdina. On October 20 there will be a post symposium tour to the sister island of Gozo where we will visit the Ġgantija Archaeological Park – a Unesco World Heritage site, the Citadel of Rabat, the Ħaġar Museum and other interesting historical places.



October 22, 2024 - Boston (Online) Join the Leventhal Map & Education Center for a virtual lecture from 7:00-8:00 pm. Learn how “cartifacts” circulated in the everydays spaces of the Revolutionary War era. In North America, the consumer revolution of the eighteenth century profoundly affected people’s material life and, as some argue, paved the way for other more momentous political revolutions. In this program, Martin Brückner (Professor of English and Director of the Winterthur Program in American Material Culture at the University of Delaware) will discuss how maps became popular consumer goods and how their material transfer as “cartifacts” came to shape everyday and political life in early America. Click here to register.



October 24-26, 2024 - San Antonio The Society for History of Discoveries will be partnering with The Texas Map Society for our next annual conference. With its warm weather, beautiful riverwalk, and rich history, San Antonio offers another exciting venue that aligns with our society's broad interests. The conference will be a multiple-day affair that will be near the Alamo and will include an excursion to the nearby Missions. Located directly on Alamo Square, our venue for the annual meeting is the famed Menger Hotel, historic partner hotel of the Alamo.



December 6, 2024 - Paris Following on from the meeting organised on 25 November 2023 in Paris on the intersections between art and cartography, the History Commission of the Comité Français de Cartographie is organising a study day entitled Cartography and Cinema at the National Institut d'histoire de l'art. Additional information from Catherine Hoffman <catherine.hofmann(at)bnf.fr>.



December 7, 2024 – Brussels The next annual conference of Brussels Map Circle will focus on Spanish cartography. More information to follow.



2025

August 26-29, 2025 - London The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Annual International Conference 2025 will be held. Additional details to be announced.



September 11-14, 2025 - Portland, Maine The 42nd International Map Collectors' Society annual symposium will be at the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, 314 Forest Ave. We will also be working with the University of Southern Maine facilities. The conference title is New Perspectives on Mapping New England and Maritime Canada. The program opens with an evening reception and possible keynote lecture on Thursday. Friday and Saturday will be lectures during the day and dinner on your own. Sunday, the final day, will be a behind the scenes tour and "Treasures of the Collection" in the morning. Then lunch and a walking tour of Portland in the afternoon ending around 3:00 PM. Closing banquet that night. There will be a post-symposium three-day tour of Maine Monday through Wednesday, September 15-17th. Additional details to be announced. Contact Libby Bischof <elizabeth.bischof(at)maine.edu> for more information.



October 31-November 1, 2025 - Winston-Salem The Museum Of Early Southern Decorative Arts asks you to please save the date for a two day map seminar, Mapping America & Its Expansion, as we explore the American Century and America’s westward migration during the 18th and 19th centuries. Moderated by Margaret Pritchard, Former Curator of Prints, Maps, and Wallpaper at Colonial Williamsburg, lecturers will include JC McElveen, Wesley Brown, and Chet Van Duzer. The seminar will also include a map fair.


Last Updated on May 10, 2024 by John W. Docktor <phillymaps(at)gmail(dot)com>